I agree with all of the points Drew makes, and try to follow the best practices that he outlines in my own projects. There’s an alternative mindset, though, which is very popular these days — and I’ve argued at length with my collegues at GitHub about the merits and drawbacks of each approach. The different mindsets grow out of a point that Drew mentioned:
As you receive feedback on your patch and make updates, continue to rebase and improve your original commit, or commits.
and that I called out as its own top-level rule for what makes a “clean” git history:
Code review does not appear in the final history of your project.
I’ve seen this alternative mindset most often with projects that have fully bought in to using GitHub as their project hub, but it is not limited to GitHub! I’ve also seen it with projects hosted on GitLab, Gitea, Phabricator, and Gerrit. All of those code forges are centered around the Pull Request (or Merge Request or whatever else you might call it) as the mechanism for code review. There are differences in workflow between these hosts — Phabricator and Gerrit, for instance, have much better support for “stacked” changes, like you’d see with a
[1/X] thread on the Linux kernel mailing list. But they all focus on having code review itself take place on the forge’s web site, as opposed to (for instance) on a mailing list.
That, in turn, makes the project maintainers and contributors internalize the idea that the forge’s unit of review should be the same as the project’s unit of change and history. And that is the difference in mindset. Zach Holman has the best summary I’ve found so far.
If you view the PR as your unit of change, then you apply all of the same best practices, but in a different place:
But as Zach calls out, you end up “not giving two shits” about the individual git commits that make up your PRs.
(To be clear, I am not advocating this mindset, but I was happy to find a good post explaining it. It’s still like fingernails on a chalkboard to come across a project that’s organized this way. But the “PR as unit of change” explanation at least means that I can now see that it is a consistent organizing principle, even if it’s not one I agree with.)
In my original post I suggest that if you use GitHub PRs as your unit of review, and want to use git commits as your unit of history, then you must make sure to use the “squash merge” feature when merging your PRs. This reduces each PR-as-unit-of-review into a single commit-as-unit-of-history at merge time. (If you’re happy to mindfully decide to use PRs as both your unit of review and your unit of history, then you can use whatever merge strategy you want.) It’s still unsolved how best to use PRs to review a “stack” of changes, that should end up as separate commits in the history, but which should be reviewed as a unit (or as a closely reviewed sequence).
You can also read this post via Gemini.